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A free field is a region in which there are no reflected sound waves. In a free field, sound radiates into space from a source uniformly in all directions. The sound pressure produced by the source is the same in every direction at equal distances from the point source. As a principle of physics, the sound pressure level decreases 6 dB, on a Z-weighted (i.e., unweighted) scale, each time the distance from the point source is doubled. This is a common way of expressing the inverse-square law in acoustics and is shown in Figure 4.
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The net result is a change in the intensity of the sound. The sound pressure does not decrease as rapidly as it would in a free field. In other words, it decreases by less than 6 dB each time the distance from the sound source doubles.
If a sound is generated at a point source in a free field, meaning there are no walls or other obstructions, the sound pressure level, Lp, will be reduced by 6 dB each time the distance from the noise source is doubled. Alternatively, Lp will increase by 6 dB in a free field each time the distance to the noise source is halved. Consider the following example: